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WILMINGTON, NC (WWAY) — Providing contraception for women has been a national topic for months, and now it has sparked debate in New Hanover County.

Commissioners unanimously voted down a state grant that would fund contraceptive supplies and services in the county. Just like the national story, providing contraceptive healthcare to women is anything but one-sided, but commissioners all seemed to have the same mindset.

“I have a fundamental philosophical issue with using tax pay dollars to fund someone’s irresponsibility,” said Commissioner Rick Catlin, who also serves on the county’s health board.

“If these young women are being responsible and didn’t have the sex to begin with, we wouldn’t have this problem to begin with, but unfortunately that’s the problem that we have,” Commission Chairman Ted Davis said.

All five commissioners voted to turn down a nearly $9,000 state grant to help fund contraceptive supplies and medical services related to family planning. The decision did not sit well with some.

“I think it’s outrageous that an all male panel have declared women who are taking responsibility for their basic health care, which includes contraception, that that would be irresponsible,” said Melissa Reed, a spokeswoman for Planned Parenthood.

“They should be trying to legislate to protect women’s health rather than trying to legislate morality,” said Han Hills, a pro-choice advocate and president of Humanists and Free Thinkers of Cape Fear. “That’s not what they’re there for.”

After thinking it through, one commissioner says he regrets his vote.

“I’m one of those abstinence guys, so I agree with those comments,” Commissioner Jonathan Barfield said during Monday’s meeting.

Barfield says he realized his mistake after talking with his wife.

“Her first question was, ‘What were you thinking?’ and we started walking through and talking about this discussion,” Barfield said. “She brought up some very valid points that if someone is seeking contraception, it shows that they are being responsible.”


Comment on this Story

  • Grand Ole Party

    No need to wish buttercup, you want to pay my taxes we can make it happen, or are you just running off at the mouth? You pay my taxes and I assure you I will shut up. So what’s it going to be?


    He is saying this “pay your own way.” Contraceptives are not a necessity.


    Check…Exactly! You hit the nail on the head. My wife and I work and she has to pay for hers. You should have to pay for yours or keep your panies on.

  • SurfCityTom

    bring stupid irrelevance to just about every topic?

    How is Nazi Germany, with its programs of forced sterilization of unwanted minorities, concentration camps and genocide, attempted development of the first atomic bombs, and the development of guided missles and jet aircraft in any way relevant to this discussion?

    If you’re going down this path, perhaps you should bring in Ghadaffi & Libyia, Idi Amin and Uganda, and Duvallier and Haiti?

    Bring something relevant and intelligent to the table.

  • Guest69985

    newsflash: if you are on welfare, medicaid, foodstamps, or would qualify for them upon becoming pregnant you already qualify for and have access to free birth control via the health dept and planned parenthood. Your argument makes no sense.

  • Guest69985

    I guess it would work because somehow despite having the same hormones and temptations as everyone else, I managed to be in control of myself and not be some kind of mindless animal. If we are saying that people are so mindless they are completely unable to say no, then how mindful are they going to be to go seek out birth control, use it properly AND use both hormonal birth control AND a barrier device? You would have to have them be mindful of 4 different things when they couldn’t even be trusted to a) say no or b) go to the drugstore and buy a condom.

    You know, underage kids will not have common sense and most will drink but I’m not at the Quick Stop standing in the parking lot buying them beer and driving them home to be sure they are safe either.

  • Guest111

    He ain’t riding no fence. He’s whipped!

  • SurfCityTom

    then you should remember birth control began at home. Parents took the time to instill a sense of right and wrong in their children.

    You should remember a time, before Lyndon Johnson created the Massive give away society programs, when folks did not live off the public dime.

    This is not about the correctness of birth control.

    This is not about men dictating how women should live.

    This is about ending public subsidies because certain members of society do not feel they should pay for their own lifestyle.

    What’s hard to understand about that?

    And if you’re 70, then you should remember when a high school female getting a “bun in the oven” was a cause for shame to her family; and a cause of accountability for the father to be.

    Today, in many cases, they can not even identify the father to be.

    Watch Maury sometime as the half witted young females drag their families through the shame while they try to lay the Father tag on someone they had sex with. Except, the DNA results prove him innocent. So they try again with someone else. Sad to think a young lady has so many playmates it may take 10 or 12 DNA exams to determine who the Father is.

    And where do you think grant funds come from? Publi grants come out of the tax payers’ pockets.

  • Guest1165

    republicans is my favorite thing in life right now. You are so easy it is like getting a conditioned response from Pavlov’s dog. I know what you are going to say before you do. Keep on hating, Adolph.

  • Grand Ole Party

    Hey moron!!!! Women don’t NEED birth control, and I damn sure don’t NEED to pay for it. Maybe loving there fellow man is the whole problem, they just need to cut back a little here and there.

  • Guesttoday

    Grand Ole Party I work and pay my bills and I’m very blessed to not need any assistance. I wish I could take over whatever big tax donations you think you pay all by yourself so I could just shut you up.

  • Guest2020

    It’s called self-control. It’s one of the things that separates us from the animal kingdom.

  • Guest2020

    Given that half of the babies murdered are male, I think that men do have a voice in this issue.

  • Commonsensenotcommontoday

    Oh, I’m a haaa-aater who doesn’t love my fellow maa-aan. (SNIFF!)

    Wake up! If we took steps to restrict irresponsible breeding by recipients of TANF, Medicaid, and Public Housing we’d be doing them a great favor. The best War on Poverty is not encouraging the production of poor people, Einstein.

    I have no problem helping people. I give away thousands of dollars to deserving charities every year. I have a great problem, however, with people making a lifelong career of sucking on the taxpayers’ teat because they’re too stupid or lazy to manage their own life.

  • SurfCityTom

    Life, Liberty & the Pursuit of Happiness.

    Show me someone who thinks the Government and Taxpayers should pick up the tab, I’ll show you a Democrat.

  • Commonsensenotcommontoday

    Drugs such as Viagra are covered by insurance WITH A CO-PAY that is larger than a normal co-pay on most plans.

    In August the Obama Administration issued an imperial edict that insurance companies cannot charge a co-pay for birth control pills.

    So you may be a man, but you’re a misinformed man who is paying higher health insurance premiums to subsidize something that women should be paying for themselves.

    This is a phony-baloney issue launched by the Democrats to increase the number of freeloaders in society in time for Obama’s re-election campaign.

  • Commonsensenotcommontoday

    Nice try, but facts will easily trump your empty, meaningless rhetoric.

    Abortion isn’t going to be banned, and women can pay for their own contraception. If they can’t they can get it free as the Department of Health.

    Do you liberals believe in anyone having to pay for anything (other than your “soak the rich” lunacy)?

  • Guest1165

    Why be a hater? Why are you always against helping someone who needs it? You have a lot of violence in your heart. How does that feel? Maybe if you loved your fellow man instead of being mean you would feel better about yourself and could figure ways to help people instead of just being you. What a miserable existence you must lead. But, that is your problem, Adolf, not mine.

  • Mike T

    No Jobs, No Money, Ban Abortion,& Less F#@$ing. That should get the women’s vote locked up for sure. Cant wait to hear the speeches from Tampa!

  • Guest461

    …in this very real world, we will always have the ignorant, the poor, the lazy, the sexually impulsive and the irresponsible. In addition, as long as the gov’t is involved, we will have those that expect to the gov’t to fix it AND pay for the consequences.

  • Grand Ole Party

    Well guess what genius, it’s not viagra for war vets. If they want birth control they can purchase it. Health issue my ass!!!! Give it a rest. I am sick of my taxes being used for such ignorant purposes. I doubt a free loading moron like you even votes. Get bent.

  • SurfCityTom

    think public grant funds come from.

    They’re not found under cabbage leaves.

    They come out of the state funded budget.

    So which is more important?

    Funding contraception for those who do not want to pay for it?

    Or putting the funds into education?

    Like to see your answer on that one.

  • Guest54687

    My first job out of college was in a social services occupation and unfortunately, the folks who regard entitlements as a career option have a view that’s polar opposite. The more children on their “case,” the more money coming in. SSI alone makes it a nice incentive to have more kids to bring in the bucks. The women who choose to prevent the pregnancy, are likely the ones you want to pass along their genes but won’t.

  • SurfCityTom

    so why not cause anyone who is receiving entitlements, including free or subsidized birth control measures, to forgo all future benefit payments for life if she conceives another drain on the economy after she begins using the device?

    Enact that and you will either see an immediate drop in welfare births or a significant drop in welfare entitlement recipients commencing in about 9 months.

    Now that would put substance behind a public program.

    But go a step further. Require random drug testing for all entitlement recipients. Drop the free cell phone program that costs about $300 million annually country wide and is so poorly managed the government continues to pay for lost phones while it gives the recipient a new phone. And require public housing authorities to conduct random, after hours property inspections.

    Boy now that will cause a maountain of savings in public dollars.

  • Commonsensenotcommontoday

    It’s part of a national effort by the Democrats to convince women that the Republicans have “declared war on them.” It’s an absurd, nonsensical charge of course, because refusing to create a new entitlement is hardly waging war on anything except the welfare state the Democrats are so enamored with.

    On top of that the Republicans are totally inept when it comes to dealing with all things political, so if they were intentionally launching a war, it would be a total failure in about a week anyway.

    The simple fact of the matter is that poor women can get free birth control already, and those who aren’t poor should pay for it themselves.

    Nothing beyond that, from either party, is true.

  • Commonsensenotcommontoday

    I never thought of you as stupid until now.

    Okay, I’m lying….I have. This tops it, however.)

  • getting down with it

    accepted the money dont’ you. Needless to say ALL MALE COMMISIONERS making decisions on female health issues? I say vote their A$$e$ out of office..ignorant bastards

  • Guest666

    Got to hand it to Barfield. He knows how to ride both sides of the political fence……..vote like you want to and then say you made a mistake in an attempt to please everybody. Guess he thinks people are too ignorant to figure him out.

  • Guest111


  • GuestVader

    I feel this way……birth control is cheaper than lifelong welfare. Also, if insurance covers Viagra (it does) to enhance mens’ sexual pleasure, women deserve to enhance theirs by not having to worry about pregnancy. I am a man, not a woman.

  • Guest 10101

    You just don’t get it. Once the grant funds run out, programs like this have a tendancy to continue on the local community’s dime. There’s no free lunch and there’s certainly no free money. Closing your eyes as tightly as possible while putting your hands over your ears and repeating the same nonsense over and over won’t make it true.

  • Guest61246

    I agree with her as well, however it will never play out this way in the real world. When the hormones start raging, common sense and reasoning take a back seat, it’s “love the one you’re with”. I don’t know why this is so difficult for some to comprehend.

  • Guest CommonTater

    is neither! There should be no “choice” here and “either”, “or” should not be a factor. Pay your own way… you breed em you feed em.

  • Guest1165

    The money is from taxes and if we don’t get it someone else will.

  • X

    Timing of this seems a bit odd to me….

  • Commonsensenotcommontoday

    Taxpayer funded giveaways to worthless deadbeats isn’t.

    Carry your own load! Pay your own way through life!

  • Commonsensenotcommontoday

    Let’s go over this again. You have no RIGHT to anything that someone else has to pay for. Free contraception is not a RIGHT.

    No one is trying to “run women’s lives.” We’re trying to make you pay your own way through life.

    So why don’t YOU take care of your own backyard by carrying your own load, and not expecting taxpayers or insurance companies to pay for it?

  • Guest51

    Vicki you need to read the county welfare payments budget.

  • Guest10987654321

    I was wondering when someone was going to mention the article in the RedStar news. Specifically the comments made by the health department in regards to women who could not “remember” to use their provided birth control. This is where the whole “irresponsible” talking point originated from.

  • Get the facts

    IUD funding is effective for 5 or 10 years and user has no pills to take.

  • frontpaige

    Our Commissioners voted to NOT use tax money to fund a program. Usually when local government accepts tax/grant money, it means those taxpayers will continue the program with their own funds. In other words a new tax payer funded program has been created on that government level! It is also a way to change or initiate public policy. Groups like Planned Parenthood and other concerned individuals can still contribute their monies to this cause. They will not be prevented from doing so.

    Men should also share responsibility. This is not just a woman’s issue, but the vote was just a tax money issue.

  • a human being

    So, it’s OK to turn down grant money that will hrlp numerous people because “my tax money shouldn’t go to pay for it” but everyone’s OK with BILLIONS in tax payers’ money to pay for war and get our own soldiers killed as well as innocent civilians. Gottcha! War good. Birth control bad. I don’t want MY tax money going to fund wars so we’re even.

  • Guest4891654

    Hormonal contraceptives for health “care” is not health care at all but lifestyle care. Hormonal contraceptives do NOT offer any protection from sexually transmitted diseases such as Aids, herpes, hepatitis, etc. Only barrier methods would do that which are relatively inexpensive and frequently free at most health departments.

    If we are trying to offer hormonal contraceptives to women as health care for OTHER conditions then it falls under the things that insurance, medicaid and sliding scale clincs would and should handle as these are off-label uses which are not regulated by the FDA.

  • Guest1165

    I think Nazi’s had forced sterilization. Common, can you make the trains run on time, also?

  • Guest 10101

    … and when it does I guess the taxpayers will just continue to pick up the tab, as usual. Personal responsibility seems to have little significance in our society these days. To blame an unwanted pregnancy on the commissioners turning down a grant is so putting the cart before the horse.

    If we humans are all just pigs (men as well as women) rutting in the mud, as apparently we are to you, then we should fund free birth control right down to about 12 years of age. We can easily find the monies for that by discontinuing funds for sex education in the schools. Sex education is just a massive waste of time and treasure if we’re all just pigs anyway.

  • Grand Ole Party

    Why should tax payers have to pay for birth contol? This is an ignorant argument. I shouldn’t have to pay for unwanted children, condoms, or any of the above. I work for a living and and expect others to do the same. If you can’t afford birth control keep your legs closed. Pretty damn simple. Give an inch and they take a mile. We tax payers foot enough of the bills as is. Enough already. It’s something new every day. Free food, free cell phones, free medical care, why the hell would anyone bother getting a job? Start cutting them off and let’s see how fast they learn to work, and learn to use SIMPLE alternative methods of birth control. Not sure what that is? PULL OUT!!! There is always some liberal wanting to spend someone else’s money.

  • mikerowes

    These same old men would more than jump up at the idea of birth control or abortion if it was there “daughter” or “mistress”. They say one thing to get the votes of a certain audience. $9000 is a drop in the bucket compared to the cost of welfare, food stamps, medicaid, and education. They were wrong in there choice. So I will do research for candidates for county commissioners who is open to idea’s like this. They just voted for a TAX increase indirectly on something they cannot control.

  • Commonsensenotcommontoday

    First, there IS no shortage of contraception available to indigent women. They can get Depo-Provera shots and all the condoms they need at the Deaprtment of Health.

    If you’re not indigent, then your contraception is your responsibility and part of that responsibility is PAYING FOR IT. This is not a “woman’s health issue,” it’s an “I don’t want to have to pay for my contraception” issue.

    That said, conservatives are ignorant to try and tie this to morality. They should simply keep it on the economic plane, and refuse to pay for contraception for women who are capable of paying for it themselves. In the case of women of child-bearing age who are on public assistance, we should make birth control MANDATORY, as a requisite to collecting your benefits.

    You have no RIGHT to anything someone else has to pay for. Food, clothing, shelter, healthcare AND contraceptives are not your rights – they are your RESPONSIBILITY.

  • Citizen of the Republic

    Instead of taxpayers paying for someone’s sexual desires, let the 2 people that make a baby be responsible for it.

    I know, that in this day and time, many teenagers feel it’s their constitutional right to party and hook up.

    Society needs to make them responsible, and make sure they raise a child properly.

    If women truly want government to stay out of their bodies, they should be responsible for what they put into their bodies. Government should have no role except to put the responsibility of contraception and child birth squarely on the people that create a life.

    It’s time to put people on notice, the taxpayer isn’t going to pay your bills, whether contraception, or child care, or monthly payments based on how many children you have.

    Pay for your responsibilities yourself, or suffer the consequences.
    If young women had to pay for diapers, baby food, etc, they would think twice before having more children.

    It’s not my job to pay for a lifetime of govt assistance for people that are too lazy to use a condom, or work.

  • Gosh free money. I wonder where it came from?

  • Guest87

    If you think you are paying now, just wait until all the babies start popping up to be supported. More WIC, more medicaid, more food stamps, etc. Also, more child abuse and domestic violence with all the unwanted babies that will be born.

  • Guest35

    What a stupid decision.

  • Lindsay Quinn

    Just an FYI to all of the comments. There are different types of birth control readily available to anyone that needs it at the New Hanover County health department. These funds were earmarked only for IUDS. The female director of family planning at the health department said they needed IUDS for women that could not remember to take their free birth control pills that they are already receiving from the health department. The director herself said the women were being irresponsible with their existing birth control. This vote did not take away any funding of existing forms of birth control from the health department. They only voted not to accept new funds for the new IUD supplies. Why should my federal and state tax dollars have to pay for a more expensive IUD, just because I can’t remember to take my pill or go in and get my DEPO shot.

  • Guest CommonTater

    Funny how the whiners come crying because there wasn’t free money to fund their irresponsible behavior. If you want to have sex have at it. Buy your own contraception… if you are too irresponsible to do that and get pregnant get a job and pay for your mistake. I am sick of paying for others mistakes and sick of those that think they are “entitled” to something.

    To the religious whiners…. This isn’t about religion it’s about being responsible for your own actions. I have heard from many an atheist that you don’t need religion to be moral or responsible. I realize this was a grant in this case. Please understand I don’t care what you do but how dare you make me pay for it in any shape or form!

  • outofpocket

    So it shouldn’t be the tax payer’s money used for birth control, but it’s OK for the tax payer’s money to be used to pay for the BIRTH of the child? The people seeking help receiving birth control ARE being responsible, they know that they need to PREVENT a pregnancy. Birth control is not ONLY used as a contraceptive, it is also used for other issues as well… excessive bleeding, migraines and menstrual cycle regulation. If a person wants to use a place such as Planned Parenthood as their regular doctor, to be able to see a doctor and afford the visit, why is this a problem? Most of these people are not getting assistance from Medicaid and they are paying out of pocket to go there. Would you rather them get Medicaid (TAX PAYER MONEY) and get everything at the same price or cheaper than being real and paying out of pocket? People need to step back and ask themselves… What would I do if I was one of those people that relied on the services of Planned Parenthood and those services were no longer available?

  • Guest461

    …once voting time arrives!!!

  • Guest111

    The craziest thing of all in this. . . most of these girls wouldn’t take the pill if it was handed to them on a daily basis. If they have kids, that’s more welfare monies for them.

  • Guest461

    …of possibly preventing the birth in the first place? This is a double edged sword. Whilst I agree with you as to how our tax dollars are spent, the choice of the lesser of two evils would be prudent.

  • Challengetheworld

    Enough with the handouts. We cannot teach morality to those who lack it. Futhermore, POLITICS AND RELIGION should never mix. Ever ever ever ever. The government should be ruled as a service business and relgious decisions should NEVER take part in any decision what so ever. The end.

  • guesty

    The grand plan is to have those that can’t manage their life to keep breeding and producing more government dependents. More government dependents equal more voters.

  • stupidMEN

    You really believe that people are just going to stop having sex, because your god wants them to. GET A DOSE OF REALITY!!! It’s your job to do what’s best for the community, not what’s best for your religious belief. So apparently you believe that it is better to have these women who no longer have access to birth control, having abortions, or even worse, having babies they don’t want, and can’t afford, thereby ending up having my govt tax dollars going to support them for the rest of their life..Seems like it’s better for the community to fork out the $9K now, rather then us having to fork out millions of dollars to support them for the next 75 years. Commissioners need to spend less time satisfying the religous sect, and more time doing what’s best for the county as a whole. All of you who voted this down, will no longer be getting my vote, in any election.

  • Guest699885

    As a woman, I agree with the commissioners. If a woman and a man pool their resources and TOGETHER cannot afford birth control then they definitely do not need to have sex. No birth control is 100% effective and if two people cannot afford 1 condom then there is NO way they could handle the costs of a pregnancy. If a man will not pay for or at the very least absorb half of the cost of contraception since a woman assumes the majority of the risk, then women really need to reconsider the quality of the man they are being intimate with in the first place. Shouldn’t you think better of yourself than to have sex with a guy who won’t even pony up a few bucks for a condom that he could even probably get for free from a health clinic if he put half a brain cell of effort into it? Aren’t we as women more valuable than that?

    If free/low cost contraception plans really worked the way people who promote them say they do, then why has the single parent birth rate for women gone up to over 50% of all births? This doesn’t factor in the access women have to abortions for unwanted pregnancies that would bring this figure way up if they were not available.

  • Gail

    What in the world is happening to our country? I have never seen such an attack on women’s rights as is happening now from local politicians to national politicians (i.e REPUBLICANS). They complain about paying for food stamps, etc. but yet do something stupid like turn down $9K Grant money just because of their stupid religious and political beliefs.

    I am a 70 year old woman who fought long and hard for women’s rights and I do not want or need any more male politician panels telling women what to do or not to do and how to do it. Take care of your own backyard and stop trying to run women’s lives. Most women are smarter than men anyway and certainly don’t need a politician or right wing religious nut telling them what to do.

    These commissioners should be ashamed of themselves and I hope no one ever votes for them again.

  • Guest4869146

    yes but only if you force someone to have an IUD which I don’t see happening. If you are on welfare you almost 100% surely qualify for FREE birthcontrol already be it IUD, Pills, shots or condoms through Medicaid, the health dept or planned parenthood yet pregnancies still happen. Free birth control is NOT the issue here.

  • Guest1971

    Guest699885 – I agree with you 100%!! I am also a woman.

    If you can’t see yourself having a baby with a man – DON’T HAVE SEX WITH HIM!!

  • Steve

    Sigh. They’re going to get laid regardless of whether they have contraception. That’s the way its always been and always will be. Unless you have some magic formula to make teenagers stop being teenagers and humans stop being human. So the question is whether you want to deal, as a taxpayer, with the consequence of unplanned pregnancy. Or, alternately, maybe you want to pass a law saying all children who are born out of wedlock can’t be born in public hospitals or get an education in public schools and their mothers aren’t entitled to any of this assistance you are so angry about having to pay for.

    And given that Medicare is only available for people over 65, birth control isn’t much of an issue. I’m assuming you meant Medicaid. If so, its fascinating that you immediately drug it, food stamps and Section 8 into the discussion. What’s really bothering you here? Come on, just say it.

  • X

    I, as a taxpayer, already pay for someone elses food stamps, section 8 housing, medicare, (does that not already cover your birth control?) and God only knows what else…..Now I am being asked to pay, with taxpayer funded grant money, so someone else can get laid???

  • Vicki

    The commissioners made a very good decision…It is not the tax payer that should be responsible, for men and women, that are not accountable for their sex behavior. IFC a woman does not want children, she should supply her own preventive care. NOT THE TAX PAYER

  • Guest1165

    This was a GRANT. Now someone else will get the money and because of this at least one young lady, probably, if not more, will get pregnant and the people of NC get to pay for it for 18 years. Which makes more sense?

  • X

    They, with the possible excption of Mr. Barfield, will get my vote. Not berger, Though, he is a nutjob.

  • dt

    thank god the commissioners turned down $9K of free money, because that will surely keep those people from having sex.

    nice logic.

    if you think this is all about getting laid, then maybe you should run for the commission. clearly that’s what they think this is about.

    the money was to provide IUDs for women who might not use other forms of contraception. see http://www.starnewsonline.com/article/20120310/ARTICLES/120309669?p=2&tc=pg&tc=ar

    keeping the IUDs from them doesn’t save taxpayer money (it will simply go to some other, less backward thinking county). it might keep some poor women from having babies, which would cost considerably more taxpayer money.

    if you really hate paying for food stamps, section 8 housing and health care, you’d support this. but all you really seem to want to do is complain about helping poor people.

  • Grand Ole Party

    “Her first question was ‘what were you thinking?’ and we started walking through and talking about this discussion,” Barfield said. “She brought up some very valid points that if someone is seeking contraception, it shows that they are being responsible.”

    News flash skippy~ Tax payers do not have to foot the bill in order for another person to act resposible!! If you need a list of how this can best be done, please let us know.

  • GuestUSMC

    This bunch of Bozos is totally unbelieveable. In the first place, in the twenty-first century, birth control should not even be an issue. Having sex is a normal function between men and women and has absolutely nothing to do with religion. The idiots that voted this down apparently do not have sense enough to realize that birth control is much cheaper than raising a welfare child and allowing the taxpayers to foot the bill from cradle to grave. But, then, they are politicians, and politicians have very little consideration for others and their hard-earned dollars. They have proven this time and time again.

  • JezebelJean

    Sanctimonious simpletons refuse funding for birth control and then will moan and groan about having to pay for the related costs of unwanted children: increased welfare costs, increased Medicaid, increased education costs.

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